If your dog has blood in her urine, take her to your veterinarian right away. While some causes of hematuria (blood in urine) may not be serious, the condition could indicate an injury or illness that requires prompt attention.
Systemic conditions can cause blood in your pet's urine. These may include clotting deficiencies, a low blood platelet (thrombocyte) count, and vasculitis (swelling of veins) within the upper urinary tract.
Other possible causes include cancer, kidney or ureter problems, infectious diseases, nephritis, trauma, structural, anatomic issues, familial diseases, neoplasia and metabolic disorders, including kidney stones. Illnesses involving the bladder, urethra and genitalia, and giant kidney worms (Dioctophyma renale), also may produce blood in your dog's urine.
Aside from blood in the urine, your dog may experience excessive thirst and frequent, red-tinged urination if he suffers from an illness involving the urinary tract. If he has cancer, you may notice a mass beneath the skin somewhere on his body. Male dogs may have a painful, enlarged prostate gland; dogs of either sex may experience tenderness in the abdomen when touched. If your dog has a clotting disorder, he may have bruising or darkened, round, purple areas on his skin.
Your Veterinarian's Diagnosis
Your veterinarian will most likely ask you for a thorough history of your dog's recent symptoms and behavior prior to performing a physical examination on your pet. If your dog has been in an accident of any sort, provide the vet with the details and time line of the incident.
Your vet may order blood tests, a urinalysis, or an ejaculate sample, depending on your pet's symptoms. Mention any recent dietary changes, including supplements you may be giving your dog. Some, such as vitamin C, can affect the outcome of certain diagnostic tests.
It may be necessary for your dog to have an ultrasound, X-rays, radiography, vaginoscopy (for female dogs), or cystoscopy (male dogs) to achieve a proper diagnosis. If your pet has a lesion or tumor, your vet may wish to perform a biopsy to rule out cancer.
Your vet will need to establish a firm diagnosis before treating your pet. If your dog has stones in his urinary tract, or if he suffers from neoplasia or has suffered a serious injury, he may require surgery. He may require intravenous antibiotic transfusions if he has a severe bacterial infection. If he has a low blood count, he may need a blood transfusion. Your vet may give him IV fluids if he is badly dehydrated.
Oral antibiotics generally will cure lesser bacterial infections, and a prescription for heparin will help break up any clots in your dog's circulatory system. Depending on which condition is causing your dog's symptoms, follow-up or long-term care may be necessary.