Whether you've recently taken in a pregnant female, are researching how to breed dogs responsibly, or you're just curious, you may have wondered how often a dog can have a litter of puppies. Some people believe back-to-back breeding through heat cycles is perfectly fine, while others insist that waiting in between heats is the safest way to go. The decision to breed your dog will be ultimately up to you, but there are a few key things to keep in mind that may help you make the right choice.
Before you breed
No matter why you're breeding a dog, there are a few things that every responsible pet owner and breeder should keep in mind before they get started. First thing's first, if you're choosing to breed your female dog, make sure your dog is healthy enough to carry a litter of puppies to term. Part of a dog's clean bill of health includes her age. Most dogs will have their first heat between six-and-18 months, which may technically make her "ready" to have puppies, but doesn't always mean that that's the best decision.
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Some people believe it's best to wait until her second cycle, while others say she's ready the first time around. To be sure your dog is ready to rear a litter, consider her breed, size, and overall health before making the decision. According to the AKC, smaller dogs tend to reach sexual maturity sooner than larger breeds, and older or unhealthy dogs should not be used for breeding, as health complications can arise. No matter what her age or medical history, it's always recommended that you check with your veterinarian for a professional opinion first, just to be safe.
WebMD states that the typical pregnancy term for most dogs is around 63 days or just over two months. During that short amount of time, you will see your pregnant dog undergo a wealth of changes. Like people, dog's pregnancies are broken up into three trimesters, each around 21-days long. During the first trimester, you will likely notice minimal changes in your dog, although a vet will be able to see puppies in an ultrasound around week three. The second trimester will produce much more noticeable changes, like a distended belly and pronounced nipples and breasts. By trimester three, ultrasounds will be able to show how many puppies she's carrying, by which time it will be just a matter of days until they make their appearance into the world.
How often can she birth?
Biologically speaking, a healthy adult dog should be able to have a litter of puppies with every heat. Whether or not that's recommended is an entirely different issue and one that is often debated. Fortunately, Whelping Puppies features pros and cons for either side of the argument. Some believe that breeding your dog back-to-back may decrease her chances of bearing healthy puppies over time. To remedy this, some breeders will only breed their young female dog back-to-back through two or three heat cycles, then spay and retire her.
On the other hand, some believe there's no real evidence that waiting for one cycle in between heats will do anything to help the dog rest and recuperate until her next pregnancy. The reason some people are against waiting in between is that with every missed cycle, the dog ages, making her less able to bear healthy litters over time. All of these proposed arguments provide even more reason to keep in close touch with your veterinarian to decide what pregnancy plan will be right for your specific dog.
Things to keep in mind
With overpopulation being the leading cause of euthanasia in the American animal shelter system, it is always recommended that you seriously consider every possible outcome before you decide to breed your dog. Selecting a suitable mate, providing a safe place for your dog to whelp her puppies, and having proper medical care and nutrition available for your dog are just a few of the things she will need to have a successful pregnancy. Additionally, the responsibility that comes with breeding doesn't stop once your dog's puppies have been weaned, so always be sure to place new puppies with pet owners who will make their health, safety, and wellbeing an absolute priority.
Always check with your veterinarian before changing your pet’s diet, medication, or physical activity routines. This information is not a substitute for a vet’s opinion.