One of the biggest mistakes fish owners make is changing all of the tank's water. This can be devastating as bacterial levels can be wiped out. Bacteria convert fish waste and decaying food into nitrates, which have a low toxicity. If the levels of nitrate build up in your fish tank, your fish can be affected by infections and fungus. At the same time, if you change all of the water in the tank at the same time you can alter your pets' entire environment. The best solution is dilution. Change part of the water regularly to keep your fish healthy.
Fill a bucket with tap water that will be used to replace the water in the fish tank. Prepare this a day in advance. The general rule is to take out about 20 percent of the tank's water. The most common tank size is 40 gallons, in which case about 8 gallons should be removed. This can be lowered to 5 gallons to make it easier, since buckets often hold 5 gallons.
Add tap water conditioners into the bucket. The kind of conditioners you use depend on the water in your area and the levels of nitrates and ammonia in your fish tank. Test the water in the tank and from your tap with a water testing kit to be sure. You may need to use an ammonia reducer or a buffer, but it is always recommended to use a dechlorinator. Use the water conditioners and dechlorinator as directed on the container. If you have a reverse osmosis dionized (RO/DI) water filter, you will not need to use water conditioner.
Place an empty bucket and the tubing next to the aquarium.
Turn off all electric devices used in the fish tank to avoid any problems. Heaters can break if exposed to excessive air, as they will attempt to heat to the room's temperature. Filters can go dry if water levels go below the suction tubing.
Place one end of the tubing into the fish tank and initiate suction by sucking on the other end of the tube like you would a straw. Make sure your end is below the end in the tank so that the water will be pulled down into the bucket. Be sure to watch the water move down the tubing to avoid getting any in your mouth. Before the water gets to your mouth, place the tubing in the empty bucket.
Remove any solid waste inside the fish tank by gently siphoning the gravel with the tubing to pick up any settled debris. Use the end of the tubing inside the tank to do this.
When the bucket is almost full, remove the tubing from the fish tank.
Pour the prepared water into the tank.
Plug in any electrical equipment that was unplugged in Step 4.