How to Tell Male & Female Geese Apart

By Bridget Johnson

What's good for the goose is good for the gander, but telling the goose from the gander in your barnyard or backyard isn't as simple as a proverb. Whether you're an experienced handler or looking to breed your geese for the first time, it's not only helpful to know how long it takes for eggs to hatch but also how to tell your male and female geese apart. Fowl experts are able to ascertain anatomical proof of a goose's gender, but behavioral cues also can add to the body of evidence. And the final determination may come in the spring when eggs make their annual appearance.

Canada geese family which includes the male, the female and the goslings are walking to a nearby lake for their first trip together to the water from a parking lot.
credit: Laura Clay-Ballard/iStock/Getty Images

Physical Examination

Determining whether a goose is male or female by its genitals usually requires expertise in sexing fowl, but the Department of Primary Industries has a detailed guide for any aspiring keeper of geese . The vent of goslings can be examined by a chicken sexer when the bird is as young as a day old.

two little gosling isolated on white background
Baby geese can be sexed by an expert as young as a day old
credit: kolesnikovserg/iStock/GettyImages

Geese are mature at 7 months and this is the best time to identify the sex of the bird, according to the Department of Primary Industries. A team of people is recommended, one to hold the bird and one to gently push the goose's tail toward the head while pressing without force on the abdomen to coax the bird into relaxing and exposing the vent. If it's a male, a corkscrew-shaped penis should be exposed.

Physical Differences

You can also identify the sex of geese by examining the physical characteristics as the exact size ranges and physical traits of geese will vary by breed. According to Majestic Water Fowl, a nonprofit dedicated to waterfowl identification and finding homes, male Chinese geese weigh from 10 to 12 pounds and the females clock in at 8 to 10 pounds, while male African geese can tip the scales at 20 pounds with females just a couple pounds lighter. Male Embden geese are much larger than their female companions, weighing 30 to 35 pounds compared to 20 to 22 pounds.

Geese Standing on the Beach
The size of geese compared to one another may give you a clue to its sex.
credit: BubblegirlPhoto/iStock/GettyImages

And though size is generally an indicator of gender, the Majestic Waterfowl Sanctuary in Lebanon, Connecticut, which has seen all breeds come through its ponds, notes that Toulouse geese look and act so similar they're difficult to distinguish.

A male Chinese or African goose may have a larger knob at the top of its bill, but other gender-identifying characteristics should be considered.

Adult Canada Goose in green grass.
The sound and pitch of a goose's honk can give you a clue; males are generally louder and more shrill.
credit: Betty4240/iStock/GettyImages

Wait for the Honk

Behaviors can vary by breed, but the general pitch of geese voices can be a gender indicator. According to Metzer Farms, the gosling's voice changes into its adult tone around 4 months of age, and males generally are noted to have a cry that's more ear-piercing. The female usually will sound more hoarse and less shrill.

Interactions

It's easier to sex a goose if there's more than one around. A male meeting a new flock generally will jump into the pecking order challenge while a female scurries away from the alpha male.

Another behavior noted by breeders at Metzer Farms is a tendency of male geese are generally more confident in coming forward toward you or challenging your leashed dog, and usually have a chest-puffed cocky strut as they act protectively around their mates.

A mother Canadian Goose standing over her next os eggs
Wait for the eggs: females will lay eggs in late winter to hatch in the spring.
credit: Akchamczuk/iStock/GettyImages

Spring Eggs

The surefire way to tell if a goose is a female is in the spring. Eggs are usually laid from the late winter in February through June, though you may not see any eggs at all from young or old females. Males will act protective toward their mates during breeding season.