From a human perspective, the journey from newborn puppy to reproductively capable "adolescent" canine often seems startlingly fast. It may feel like one day you have a sweet, cuddly little puppy, and the next you have a restless and easily irritated ball of hormones on your hands -- yikes.
Age of Reproductive Maturity
Most dogs become sexually mature while they're still in the "puppy" stage -- usually by the time they're 1 year old, although exceptions do occur. Once a puppy is physically mature sexually, then he is capable of mating and breeding. If a reproductively mature male puppy is in close proximity to a sexually mature female puppy, then there is a very good chance that they will mate together.
Breed Helps to Determine Age of Sexual Maturity
The breed of a specific dog often determines when he will become sexually mature. According to the American Kennel Club, smaller-sized breeds typically bloom at a more rapid rate than their larger counterparts. For instance, a poodle may become sexually mature and therefore sexually active quicker than, say, an American mastiff. However, as always, this relies on the individual pooch. A smaller doggie such as a poodle may mature physically at a tender 6 months old, while a massive American mastiff may take 15 months or longer. Very large female dogs sometimes even have their first heat cycles as late as 2 years old.
Age of Sexual Maturity
Sexual maturity in dogs generally comes within the bracket of 6 months to 1 year in age, indicates the ASPCA. The American Kennel Club states that male canines usually become fecund by the half-year mark, although complete sexual maturity takes a little longer -- think a year to 15 months or so. Female canines generally go through their initial heat cycles at roughly 6 months old, although it may take significantly longer for some individuals, and in certain cases, perhaps even up to two years. If a male dog is fecund by 6 months, and a female dog goes through heat at this point, sexual activity is very likely.
Spaying and Neutering
One way in which to prevent sexual activity and reproduction in puppies is by early spaying and neutering procedures. The ASPCA recommends puppy owners do this before the little ones become sexually mature and therefore hormonally-influenced. Consult your veterinarian regarding her suggestions for the optimal time frame for fixing your young pet.
By Naomi Millburn
Spay First!: How Early Can My Cat or Dog Get Pregnant?
American Kennel Club: Breeders
The Merck Manual for Pet Health: Management of Reproduction in Dogs
ASPCA: How Will Neutering Change My Dog?
ASPCA: How Will Spaying Change My Dog?
Alabama Cooperative Extension System: Canine Breeding and Reproduction
About the Author
Naomi Millburn has been a freelance writer since 2011. Her areas of writing expertise include arts and crafts, literature, linguistics, traveling, fashion and European and East Asian cultures. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in American literature from Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo.