Canine Cervical Instability Syndrome
Canine cervical instability syndrome is a serious condition affecting large dogs. It tends to strike certain breeds predictably, but any large breed or giant breed is at risk. If Bubba's cervical spinal cord becomes compressed, he may take on an unsteady, wobbly gait, reflective of the term "wobbler syndrome."
One Condition, Many Names
Cervical instability syndrome goes by a variety of names, including cervical spondylomyelopathy, cervical stenosis, cervical vertebral instability and cervical spondylopathy. It's commonly referred to as wobbler syndrome. Whatever its label, the disease affects the cervical spines of large- and giant-breed dogs. If Bubba has this ailment, his spinal cord and/or nerve roots are compressed, giving him neck pain and neurological issues.
Compressed Spinal Cord
Bubba's backbone is composed of a group of small bones known as vertebrae. Vertebrae surround and protect his spinal cord, allowing him to move properly and feel sensations, including pain and touch. Each vertebra is separated by a disk, which serves as a shock absorber and allows for movement between each vertebra. If Bubba has cervical vertebral instability, his spinal cord is compressed in the area of his neck, resulting in weakness and lack of coordination of his legs, making him a bit wobbly.
Causes of Cervical Instability Syndrome
No specific cause of cervical instability syndrome is known, but dogs afflicted with the condition have herniated, slipped or bulging discs, or bony abnormalities in the vertebral canal around the spinal cord. Either problem will cause the compression leading to wobbler syndrome. But in some breeds of dogs, the issue is more predictable. Doberman pinschers suffering from the disease tend to have slipped discs; vertebral malformation is often at the root of the problem for mastiffs, great Danes, rottweilers, German shepherds, Weimaraners, Bernese mountain dogs and Swiss mountain dogs.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
The obvious sign of cervical instability syndrome is irregular walking or running, often leading to an unsteady gait. Other symptoms include neck pain, difficulty standing after sitting or lying down, muscle loss in the shoulders, partial or complete paralysis in the legs, dragging feet and subsequent worn or scuffed nails, and walking or standing in a crouched position with the head held low. Over time, the condition and symptoms get worse; Bubba's front legs may get stiff or he may adopt a high-stepping gait. If the vet suspects Bubba is suffering from wobbler syndrome, he'll get a thorough exam, including X-rays and possibly a CT scan or an MRI.
Cervical instability syndrome progresses without treatment. Surgery and medical management are the two available treatment options, and the ultimate choice depends on how severe Bubba's problem is and where his spinal cord problem is located. Surgery always carries risks; however, it's often very effective against the syndrome, particularly if performed early in the condition. If Bubba has surgery, he'll be hospitalized several days following surgery and will need extra TLC following, including staying off steps, help walking and, potentially, physical therapy. Medical management includes administering anti-inflammatory drugs; minimizing neck movement, potentially with a neck brace; and severely restricting activity, possibly including cage rest. Use body harnesses instead of neck collars with dogs who have wobbler syndrome, and do not let them run or jump for at least two or three months after treatment.
By Betty Lewis
University of Prince Edward Island: Cervical Vertebral Instability (Wobbler Syndrome)
University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine: Wobbler's Syndrome in Dogs
VCA Animal Hospital: Cervical Stenosis in Dogs
Healthy Pets: If Your Dog Is a Large or Giant Breed, Stay Alert for These Symptoms
PetMD: Wobbler Syndrome in Dogs
The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine: Wobbler Syndrome
Seattle Veterinary Specialists: Cervical Vertebral Instability
About the Author
Betty Lewis has been writing professionally since 2000, specializing in animal care and issues, business analysis and homeland security. Lewis holds a bachelor's degree in journalism from West Virginia University as well as master's degrees from Old Dominion University and Tulane University.